Water fluoride concentrations (mgF/L) per LSOA in England (2009 - 2020)
This dataset is a record of annual water fluoride concentrations in Lower Super Output Areas (LSOAs) in England from 2009 to 2020.
We obtained information on the fluoride concentrations for each water supply zone through requests made under the Environmental Information Regulations 2004, to water companies in England. The Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations SI 2016/614 require that water companies take a minimum of 1-8 annual samples per water supply zone, per year (dependent on population size) of water fluoride concentrations, as part of routine water quality monitoring.
This dataset was created by merging the supplied information on annual fluoride concentrations in each water supply zone, with the 2011 LSOA population-weighted centroids (Office for National Statistics).
Further details on the methods used to create this dataset will be found in the Research paper accompanying this dataset