DEM: 3D Cliff collapse 1. Movie of cliff failure
3D Discrete element model of cliff collapse
The model consists of 480,000 elements in a regular hexagonal packing in box that has dimensions of 400 x 75 x 40 units that dips at 10o. Elements within the material have breaking strains defined at the start of the experiment that range from 0.0025-0.05. The strength of the connection between each pair of elements is determined at the start of the experiment from the average breaking strain that connect them. This introduces heterogeneity into the media. Half the bonds between elements are also broken at the start of the experiment to increase the heterogeneity. A percentage of elements are defined to be stronger ‘rocks’ within the matrix. These rocks are created from finding an element with the highest breaking strain and giving all elements within a randomly selected radius (<10.0 units) the same breaking strain.
Elements in the output are coloured according to the number of broken bonds to neighbours from white (0) to dark blue/green (14). The strong ‘rocks‘ are represented by the white spheres.
The first reference below links to some still images from this experiment and the second links to an experiment where a box is raised.